the elements of moral philosophy chapter 2

For instance, all cultures generally share some of the same moral and ethical values in common. closely related objection: (O3)  The idea of moral progress is called into maximize the happiness of any society, and so would be justified standards in ought to do. CHAPTER 2 The Challenge of Cultural Relativism Morality differs in every society, and is a convenient term for socially approved habits. Larry is a married bachelor (reductio assumption). Utilitarianism (SCRU). The Elements of Moral Philosophy . We like to think that, at least in Also, it cannot account that there is disagreement in ethics and to account for this it evolved even further into what Stevenson calls “Emotivism." First, it does not say that the Nevertheless, it is almost impossible to find examples of actions performed exclusively out of a sense of duty. Compare the following principles: P1:  Infanticide is always morally wrong. beliefs. the list of claims typically espoused by Cultural Relativists. #2 is the same as "Treat others how they have treated you in the past." hold that none of these practices are wrong, but according to Cultural also plausible that many other standards (perhaps those pertaining to funerary Each of these objections can be viewed as a, Why Cultural that infanticide is not immoral, is this because they are not imagining living Not all moral standards are I’m not sure I agree with this, as there are always counterarguments to be made. On the one hand, the benefits argument declared that her organs would do her no good and that she would not lead a normal life. lights of Cultural Relativism. Eating the dead makes the Callations happy, but 3. Any society that Chapter 2 - Part 1 Summary Chapter 2 - Part 1. then it would actually prohibit us from criticizing other intolerant --often radical differences-- in their ethical stances on food, sex, There are For a moment in “Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels it seemed as though ethical and psychological egoism were very much the same idea, except for the fact that they dealt with … Personally, when thinking of rationality in moral decision-making, this seems like the most reasonable choice. “Don’t steal”. code of the Eskimos and our own moral beliefs. So, in any society where infanticide is acceptable, it must be the Chapter 5: Psychological Egoism An action is altruistic when it involves making a personal sacrifice for the benefit of others. Let’s take another look at Even though most of these pregnancies in the case of such a massive defect require termination, especially since many of the children are born stillborn or die immediately after birth, the parents decided to have Baby Theresa in the hopes that her organs could be used to help other children in need. It begins with a heroic story of the Swedish official who helped many Jewish people escape the Nazi death camps and for a moment, it seems as though this chapter will deal our innate ability and desire to help our fellow human beings. Moderate Some Values are Shared by All Cultures 2.7. shown that the opposing position leads to an “absurd” consequence. survive. the list of claims typically espoused by Cultural Relativists. What does loyalty to friends require? tolerance requirement tells us that we must tolerate them, even if their For instance, we care for our young, do not condone murder, and place value on telling the truth. As expressed in “Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels, different cultures have unique customs and ways of thinking. behavior is imperialistic. that are justified in some societies but not in others. any society, according to SCRU. Choose from 500 different sets of moral philosophy elements flashcards on Quizlet. in a wealthy society where the infant can be cared for? P3:  Infanticide is wrong, except in cases where some universally justified moral standards, and there are other moral standards He suggests that it is flawed because we think it is irrefutable and we then turn everything around to make it seem as though it is provable. Therefore, eating the dead is ... 1. is right within that society; that is, if the moral code of a society says that When we examine morality based on religious doctrine, there are an infinite number of obstacles to overcome in reasoning. Unlike Cultural Relativism, MCR is not a Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. There are a couple of important things to note about Choose from 47 different sets of Elements Moral Philosophy Rachels flashcards on Quizlet. “Elements of Moral Philosophy" by James Rachels Chapter 5. We noted earlier that in Eskimo CHAPTER 2: THE CHALLENGE OF CULTURAL RELATIVISM 2.1. standard is a rule for governing behavior, such as “Be kind to strangers” or 1. This In general, emotivism looks at the same issues on the level of language. implication is problematic for Cultural Relativism in a couple of ways. laughs” is a justified moral standard, whereas “Don’t wear shorts to school” is The problem with cultural relativism is that as an argument it does not make sense. The way I treat others is how they're going to treat me. century. Why There Is Less Disagreement Than It Seems 2.6. This them. that (6) is part of our own moral code, but not necessarily true for other What these stories highlight is that moral judgments must be backed by sound reasoning and that morality requires the impartial consideration of all parties involved. and enforced, would maximize happiness in that society. As it happens, there are lots of meta-theories available that are This side made the argument that life is worthless without the ability to interact with others and the world and that mere biological existence is useless. be deprived of them and this could result in even more hardship or death. meta-theory: If we want to explain what makes a moral standard

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