The aluminum grade designations and compositional limits can be found in the Aluminum Teal Sheets (www.aluminum.org/sites/default/files/TEAL_1_OL_2015.pdf). These alloys are not heat-treatable, so any strength comes primarily from work hardening during forming. It is ductile enough for deep drawing and weldable, but has low strength. These alloys are not heat-treatable, and any work hardening from forming may be lost if a paint-bake cycle is used or operating temperature is greater than about 150 degrees F. They are susceptible to Lüders band formation (stretcher strains), so these alloys are not the best candidates for exposed applications where draw or stretch forming has occurred. Of course, there is a trade-off: The 3XX series has better formability and therefore can make more complex parts. It uniformly thins the workpiece in a specific area. (As a reference, low-carbon steel is about $0.50/lb.) 5182. L indicates a lower carbon level, which usually is done to increase weldability at the expense of strength. The progression of thicknesses is clear in column 3 (U.S. standard for sheet and plate iron and steel 64ths inch (delta)). It is commonly used for pumps, valves, chemical equipment, and marine applications. Aluminum, or aluminium in British English, is also a popular metal used in sheet metal due to its flexibility, wide range of options, cost effectiveness, and other properties. It is weldable, corrosion resistant, and stronger than 5052, but not as formable. Cold rolling: In this temperature is below recrystallisation temperature. In the final stage, the part is punched free from the "web".  The tolerances in the table and attachments reflect current manufacturing practices and commercial standards and are not representative of the Manufacturer's Standard Gauge, which has no inherent tolerances. a square, circle, or hexagon) is cut directly from the sheet. Some of the 4XX alloys have a ferritic microstructure. The metal is heated and burnt by the laser beam, cutting the metal sheet. A punch is less flexible than a laser for cutting compound shapes, but faster for repetitive shapes (for example, the grille of an air-conditioning unit). , Grade 5052-H32 is much stronger than 3003 while still maintaining good formability. Because the 7XXX series exhibits higher strength than the 5XXX or 6XXX alloys do, research is underway to overcome the challenges of using this alloy family in automotive structural applications. , Grade 316 possesses more corrosion resistance and strength at elevated temperatures than 304. The greater the depth, the more reductions are required. , Grade 410 is a heat treatable stainless steel, but it has a lower corrosion resistance than the other grades. A simple shape (e.g. In most of the world, sheet metal thickness is consistently specified in millimeters. This is why can ends are made from 5182-H19. , Grade 6061-T6 is a common heat-treated structural aluminium alloy. . An H19 temper represents an alloy that has been significantly worked by cold rolling and not annealed afterwards, resulting in a high-strength product. Figure 3. Gauge differs between ferrous (iron-based) metals and nonferrous metals such as aluminum or copper. It resembles flattening of leveling process, but on a deformed edge. Hemming is a process of folding the edge of sheet metal onto itself to reinforce that edge. Grade 304 is the most common of the three grades. Spinning is used to make tubular (axis-symmetric) parts by fixing a piece of sheet stock to a rotating form (mandrel). In many cases, material is rolled at the mill in both directions to aid in deep drawing. 5052-H32 : Good Formability, commonly used sheet grade 5052-H34 : Fair Formability, excellent corrosion resistance & Welding characteristics; 1050-H14 : Good Weldability; 6061 It is used to make thickness uniform.
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