However, from Frege and Russell onwards logical form analysts were no longer confined to such narrow linguistic perspectives. ", In artificial intelligence, logical forms have been used in semantic parsers for natural language understanding.. 511–512, Russell, Bertrand.  Two invalid argument forms are affirming the consequent and denying the antecedent. The logical form of a sentence is determined by the semantic types of its primitive … Request full-text PDF. The fundamental difference between modern formal logic and traditional, or Aristotelian logic, lies in their differing analysis of the logical form of the sentences they treat: The more complex modern view comes with more power. In book: Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (pp.309-312) Authors: D. Blair. For the possible complements of a verb in linguistics, see, The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, CUP 1999, pp. Logical Form contains several technical innovations: the notion that LF-movement closely approximates "Move α," a new approach to characterizing quantifier scope, which makes central use of the notion of … Medieval logicians recognized the problem of multiple generality, where Aristotelian logic is unable to satisfactorily render such sentences as "some guys have all the luck," because both quantities "all" and "some" may be relevant in an inference, but the fixed scheme that Aristotle used allows only one to govern the inference. This article is about the term as used in logic. In philosophy and mathematics, logical form of a syntactic expression is a precisely-specified semantic version of that expression in a formal system. What results is the form of the original argument. It is the business of philosophical logic to extract this knowledge from its concrete integuments, and to render it explicit and pure. According to the followers of Aristotle like Ammonius, only the logical principles stated in schematic terms belong to logic, and not those given in concrete terms. Given a valid inference, there is a sense in which the premisescontain the conclusion, which is correspondingly extractable from thepremises. The term "logical form" itself was introduced by Bertrand Russell in 1914, in the context of his program to formalize natural language and reasoning, which he called philosophical logic. Click Here for Items Related To - Logical Form (linguistics) In some theories of syntax and grammar, in particular in the Chomskyan schools of government and binding theory and the minimalist program , the Logical Form (abbreviated LF and conventionally spelled with capital initial letters) of a linguistic expression is a mental representation of it, derived solely from surface structure . But far from showing that the logical form of ‘The boy sang’ diverges dramatically from its grammatical form, the restricted quantifier notation suggests that the logical form closely parallels the grammatical form. On the modern view, the fundamental form of a simple sentence is given by a recursive schema, like natural language and involving logical connectives, which are joined by juxtaposition to other sentences, which in turn may have logical structure. But different people understand the term logical form differently, so before we proceed, some clarification is necessary. Inductive logical forms include inductive generalization, statistical arguments, causal argument, and arguments from analogy. Robert May is Assistant Professor of Linguistics, Barnard College, Columbia University. Robert May is Professor of Logic and Philosophy of Science, Linguistics, and Philosophy at the University of California, Irvine. December 2006; DOI: 10.1016/B0-08 -044854-2/01190-1.
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