In conclusion, the present study confirmed earlier reports indicating that Phytophthora is the causal agent of citrus gummosis in Ghana. In some cases, the REI exceeds the PHI. I Setor de Defesa Fitossanitária, Departamento de Produção Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Botucatu, SP, Brazil Plant Dis 98:55–61, Article Lesions spread around the circumference of the trunk, slowly girdling the tree. All the citrus producing regions are facing threat due to a soil borne water loving pathogen Phytophthora species. Growth at cardinal temperatures, 5 and 35 °C, was evaluated on V8 juice agar after 30 days in the dark as indicated by Erwin and Ribeiro (1996). Control of Phytophthora gummosis in citrus with foliar sprays of fosetyl Al, a new systemic fungicide. Feeder root rot of citrus causes a slow decline of the tree. Australasian Plant Dis. Affected trees showed leaf chlorosis and twig die-back with reduced fruit production. Can also be used as a protectant on trees where risk of gummosis is high. These morphological and cultural characteristics were similar to those described for Phytophthora citrophthora (Erwin and Ribeiro 1996). Restricted entry interval (REI) is the number of hours (unless otherwise noted) from treatment until the treated area can be safely entered without protective clothing. Not all registered pesticides are listed. The Phytophthora species causing gummosis develops rapidly under moist, cool conditions. The sequence was submitted to the GenBank database with accession No. COMMENTS: For use on all susceptible citrus. Proceedings of the International Society of Citriculture, 1981. Forest and Horticultural Crops Research Centre-Kade, School of Agriculture, College of Basic and Applied Sciences, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, Centro de Protección Vegetal y Biotecnología, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias (IVIA), Moncada, Valencia, Spain, You can also search for this author in Do not make more than two applications of this product per year and do not use more than 19.2 fl oz/acre per year. Plants were stem-inoculated by removing a 5-mm-diameter disc of the bark of the scion on each plant using a cork borer to expose the cambium and placing a mycelial plug obtained from 5-day-old colonies (Álvarez et al. This site is one of the main citrus-growing areas in Ghana and was surveyed by Assuah et al. Isolates grew at 5 °C but not at 35 °C. An early symptom of Phytophthora gummosis is sap oozing from small cracks in the infected bark, giving the tree a bleeding appearance. Cite this article. Citrus gum, which is water-soluble, disappears after heavy rains but is persistent on the trunk under dry conditions. Phytopathology 103:1204–1208, Article Google Scholar, Hearn CJ, Fenton R (1970) Benomyl sprays for control of twig dieback of ‘Robinson’ tangerine. Leather (1959) indicated that citrus gummosis was caused by P. parasitica. Shape of sporangia was obpyriform or ovoid with the following lengths and widths: 50.6 (36.5–64.4) × 31.1 (23.6–38.6) μm and with a L:W ratio of 1.6 (1.3–2.3) based on 100 measurements. Inject 8 to 10 inches deep, 12 to 18 inches apart, and tarp immediately. 1999). 1999). Mycelial characteristics, morphology and dimensions of 100 sporangia were evaluated microscopically at 400X. Inoculation sites in the plants were previously disinfested with 70 % ethanol. Citrus Gummosis Information. Decline may occur rapidly within a year, especially under conditions favorable for disease development, or may occur over several years. The disease was originally related to Phytophthora parasitica but more recently to Lasiodiplodia theobromae. Citrus Phytophthora Info. (1999) indicated that the causal agent of citrus gummosis in Ghana was L. theobromae. The aetiology of citrus gummosis in Ghana was reassessed in the same locations surveyed by previous studies. Phytophthora gummosis causes sap to ooze from small cracks in infected bark until the damaged bark eventually cracks and falls off, while tree leaves yellow and eventually drop. COMMENTS: Use when disease occurs. Horticulture Export Industry Initiative, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Accra, Park B, Martin F, Geiser DM, Kim HS, Mansfield MA, Nikolaeva E, Park SY, Coffey MD, Russo J, Kim SH, Balci Y, Abad G, Burgess T, Grünwald NJ, Cheong K, Choi J, Lee YH, Kang S (2013) Phytophthora database 2.0: update and future direction. The Phytophthora species causing gummosis develops rapidly under moist, cool conditions. However, in Ghana, the anti-oomycete fungicide metalaxyl (Syngenta Crop Protection AG, Switzerland) is recommended for the control of citrus gummosis (Ofosu-Budu et al. One isolate from each sample was selected for morphological and cultural analysis.
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