philosophy of language questions

In the area of logical theory, Carnap’s meaning postulates and semantic rules are shown to be of no help in revealing the nature of analyticity and synonymy; with their extensionalist nature, they pertain more to necessary truths and necessary equivalence than analyticity. Kripke, however, destroys Searle’s account of proper names with his counterfactual of Jonah, which is that all the descriptive information we have about him – gleaned from the Biblical story – turns out to be false. First, Kripke’s referential account of names leaves the meaning of negative existential statments like “Santa Claus does not exist” (S) unexplained. Russell fancies that he is talking about sentences when he is in fact, Strawson says, talking about the use of sentences. I think it is a very lucid article but I have a ... Semiotics, as developed by Pearce, Saussure, Barthes, and others can have very broad applications that overlap with epistemology, logic, and maybe even ontology. Is it important for a ethical hacker to know the C language in-depth nowadays? In Kripke’s view, a proper name is a rigid designator, which means that it designates the same object in every possible world. For Strawson, truth lies with a token and significance, or meaning, with the type. Putnam’s Twin Earth argument further shows that the sense of the term water is not enough alone to fix the extension of the natural kind term because the extension of the term is determined by a scientific appeal to the natural world. The rigidity of ‘Nixon’ stems from the stipulation that the token of the proper name ‘Nixon’ is being used to speak of the “same contextually specified individual in every possible world,” as Katz summarizes it in “Names without Bearers” (p. 14-15). In the situation of Searle’s counterexample, the token of the type in question does mean “I am a German officer.”. Constitutive rules, on the other hand, constitute (and also regulate) an activity the existence of which is logically dependent on these rules; that is, constitutive rules create or define a new activity or form of behavior. Explain. Follow on from this question. More specifically, Davidson would define meaning by replacing “p means q” with “S is true if and only if p,” with ‘S’ standing for sentence. Thus it cannot be the reference, but the signs themselves, in which the identify relation resides. In other words, both should have the same cognitive value, but they do not. Besides its similar counterfactual form, Putnam’s cat robot argument is related to the twin earth argument by showing that what we believe to be the extension of a term is tied to an advanced body of scientific knowledge about the world. Thus, to ask what A meant, Grice says, is to ask for a specification of the intended effect. Q: Kripke thinks that names do not have a sense – and he has an account of how they are used referentially in spite of having no sense. Q: What is Putnam’s Twin Earth argument that meanings are not in the head (or that my Doppelganger on Twin Earth and I here cannot both have the word water with the same meaning? It has, for Strawson, no truth value. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Searle thinks his counterexample satisfies all Grice’s conditions for meaning – yet the utterance still fails to have meaning, he says. Has Semiotics been adopted by any mainstream academic philosophers? A: In a nutshell: The criteria of application of a term rests on science. In section 2.4 of "Aboutness" Yablo offers the following analysis of what does it mean that a statament is true about a certain subject matter/topic: A: One of Frege’s arguments for thinking that words have sense as well as reference is contained in the examples he gives for referring to Venus. Q: What problem might Davidson have in mind when he says that traditional theories of meaning cannot handle the semantics of belief sentences? Meaning is a function of the sentence; referring and truth or falsity are functions of the use of the sentence. Second, Russell would say that part of what the person uttering (S) would be asserting would be that there at present existed one and only one king of France. What is this hole above the intake of engines of Mil helicopters? Grice’s response appeals to the token-type distinction, with the token of the sentence bearing the burden of meaning in this case. But it might turn out that cats are in fact not animals at all, but robots. If one persisted, however, and tried to explain the difference in cognitive value by appealing only to what each term designates, one would be forced to appeal to the nature of the signs themselves and to assert a relation between them. Q: Explain why Davidson thinks that a dictionary does not “touch the standard problem, which is that we cannot account for even as much as the truth conditions of [belief] sentences on the basis of what we know of the meaning of the words in them.”. Regulative rules characteristically take the form of imperatives. (seven days). On Words: John Locke. More specifically, though, Putnam is interested in the criteria for a term’s application. Why is it that philosophers use terms that aren't literally true in their literature? Therefore, Frege says, two expressions having the same referent do not necessarily have the same sense. This is a combination of basically two different questions, but they are interrelated. Likewise, Kant conceived of an analytic statement as one that attributes to its subject no more than is already conceptually contained in the subject. It can be put ... Should we, human-beings, try to define truth (given truth exists in reality)? Is his reason a good one? A proper name, as Kripke’s Godel-Schmidt example demonstrates, does not mean any properties or descriptions associated with the name. The difference in cognitive value, Frege says, can be explained only if the difference between the signs corresponds to a difference in the mode of presentation of that which is designated. A sentence, on Russell’s view, is either true or false. If the equality of a and b is seen only with regard to what they designate, the kind of relation expressed would only be that of a thing to itself – which does not explain the fact that they differ in cognitive value. For in such a case, a=b would no longer refer to the subject matter and would express no new knowledge. If there were only reference and no sense, such a view would leave the difference between direct and indirect speech unexplained. I am asking this question because I thought what truth value would have a have a quantifier over a set that contains persons that are dead. Thus, extension, Putnam says, is not determined by psychological state; the meaning of natural kind terms is not in the head. While Putnam confines his argument to natural kind terms, Burge puts forth a counterfactual that expands the scope of terms for which meanings are not in the head. Since sets have both intentional and extensional definition my thought is yes they are concepts. Why is a well-understood theory easier to understand, and does this answer the question “Why is older philosophy 'easier' to understand”? Q: What is Strawson’s reason for thinking that someone who said “The present king of France is wise” is not asserting that there is at present a king of France? Can you think of any undesirable consequence of his view about names that cannot be handled on his account of how they are used referentially? It fails to resolve conundrums posed by negative existential statements, identity, and substitution in opaque contexts. In other words, the criteria of the application of the term mammal to the total possible class of whales is indeterminate and thus not permanently fixed in advance of possible further empirical discoveries. site design / logo © 2020 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. Scientific knowledge is subject to change, however, and we may in fact discover, for example, that cats are not really animals. Q: Donnellan says the following: “Given present circumstances, the correct thing to say is that all whales are mammals. Yet if Kripke’s approach fails to deal in a straightforward way with the above three cases – negative existential statements, identity, and substitution in opaque contexts – we have a deeper problem. Frege’s solution to the morning star-evening star problem is to say that signs denote objects by their sense, or mode of presentation. Thus one can explain how a=b differs in cognitive value from a=a only by appeal to sense. Specificially, Mates’ example demonstrates, Davidson believes, that knowledge of a sentence’s syntax combined with knowledge of its words does not alone yield knowledge of what the sentence means.

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