Bold, deeply lobed silvery-green leaves grow in a giant rosette that can get 4 feet tall. Artichoke, (Cynara cardunculus, variety scolymus), also called globe artichoke or French artichoke, large thistlelike perennial plant of the aster family grown for its edible flower buds. To keep stock young and vigorous, divide plants every two to three years and plant at the same spacing as seeds. A chemical compound, applied when adverse weather conditions prevail during the period of fruit setting, has been used to encourage fruit set.…. If the artichoke bud is not harvested, it will open into an attractive purple thistle-like flower. Premium Membership is now 50% off! Updates? Encyclopaedia Britannica's editors oversee subject areas in which they have extensive knowledge, whether from years of experience gained by working on that content or via study for an advanced degree.... Where is the line between fruit and vegetable really drawn? In zone 7 and warmer, they are perennial. This improved artichoke is such a pretty plant that it is also sold as an ornamental. Corrections? Omissions? such as cauliflower, broccoli, and artichoke; a seed, such as pea and lima bean; the immature fruit, such as eggplant, cucumber, and sweet corn (maize); or the mature fruit, such as tomato and pepper.…, …used to accelerate maturity in artichokes. This article was most recently revised and updated by, https://www.britannica.com/plant/artichoke, Virginia Cooperative Extension - Publication and Educational Resources - Globe Artichoke, The Spruce - Growing and Caring for Artichoke Plants. Test your knowledge with this quiz. The plants produce rosettes of sturdy branched flower stalks with purple flower heads. They can grow up to 3 feet long. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. in diameter. Globe artichokes are not too fussy about soil, as long as it's reasonably fertile and well drained. The artichoke’s flavour is delicate and nutlike, and the smaller heads, or buds, are usually the most tender. Green Globe artichoke plants grow to height of 4 feet (1.2 m.). The plants are large growing between 4 ½ and 6 ½ feet tall. Artichoke heads are served as a hot vegetable with a sauce or as a cold salad or appetizer. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Artichoke plants feature deeply toothed large leaves that grow up to one metre (three feet) long and that die each year after flowers are formed. Artichoke, (Cynara cardunculus, variety scolymus), also called globe artichoke or French artichoke, large thistlelike perennial plant of the aster family (Asteraceae) grown for its edible flower buds. Transplant to their permanent position when they are large enough to handle, with at least five true leaves, allowing 60-90cm (2-3ft) between plants. Globe artichokes ( Cynara scolymus) are relatives of the thistle. The leaves are deeply lobed and grey green in color. Although the mature flower heads produce seeds, the seedlings do not necessarily resemble the variety of the parent plant, so vegetative propagation is preferred. Water in well. The flower bud, the edible part of the artichoke plant, develops on a tall stem from the center of the plant. The thick bracts and the receptacle of the immature flower head, known as the heart, are a culinary delicacy. The thick bracts and the receptacle of the immature flower head, known as the heart, are a culinary delicacy. Keep crops weed free, mulch with well-rotted manure or similar in spring when … Heirloom. After four to eight years the cluster of rosettes becomes crowded, and the size and quality of the heads become reduced. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The plant is then renewed by planting divisions of the rosette crown or rooted offshoots. The artichoke’s flavour is delicate and nutlike, and the smaller heads, or buds, are usually the most tender. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The fleshy flower buds 2 to 5 inches in diameter borne on a tall stem from the center of the plant are the edible portion. Native to the western and central Mediterranean, the artichoke was domesticated and carried to the eastern Mediterranean in ancient times, though it was then valued for its young leaves rather than the immature flower heads. The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is grown for its edible tubers and does not resemble the artichoke. Seed-grown plants usually flower the year of sowing. They are native to the Mediterranean area. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Green Globe artichoke plants produce three to four buds, which are 2 to 5 inches (5 to 13 cm.) The edible-flower form was first recorded in Italy around 1400, and today it is extensively cultivated in Mediterranean countries, the Americas, and other regions with the necessary rich soil and mild, humid climate. Black Friday Sale!
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