Some strong verbs change their stem vowel in the second and third person singular of the indicative mood of the present tense. Franconia consists of the Bavarian districts of Upper, Middle, and Lower Franconia, the region of South Thuringia (Thuringia), and the eastern parts of the region of Heilbronn-Franken (Tauber Franconia and Hohenlohe) in Baden-Württemberg. Datenerhebung 2015 – Worldwide survey of people learning German; conducted by the German Ministry for Foreign Affairs and the Goethe Institute", "Foreign Language Enrollments in K–12 Public Schools", "More than 80% of primary school pupils in the EU were studying a foreign language in 2013", "Die am häufigsten üblicherweise zu Hause gesprochenen Sprachen der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung ab 15 Jahren – 2012–2014, 2013–2015, 2014–2016", "Verein Deutsche Sprache e.V. The abundance and especially the secular character of the literature of the MHG period demonstrate the beginnings of a standardized written form of German, as well as the desire of poets and authors to be understood by individuals on supra-dialectal terms. A common misunderstanding among English-speakers learning German is caused by a divergence in meaning between English must and German müssen. Latin words were already imported into the predecessor of the German language during the Roman Empire and underwent all the characteristic phonetic changes in German. The largest cities in the East Central German area are Berlin and Leipzig. Salzstreuer and Bohrer also denote instruments. photographer from photograph in English) are constructed by taking the infinitive, removing the ending and replacing it by -er, -ler or -er(er). If a narrow definition of language based on mutual intelligibility is used, many German dialects are considered to be separate languages (for instance in the Ethnologue). . German vowels can form the following digraphs (in writing) and diphthongs (in pronunciation); note that the pronunciation of some of them (ei, äu, eu) is very different from what one would expect when considering the component letters: Additionally, the digraph ie generally represents the phoneme /iː/, which is not a diphthong.  This was a period of significant expansion of the geographical territory occupied by Germanic tribes, and consequently of the number of German speakers. Also closely related to Standard German are the Upper German dialects spoken in the southern German-speaking countries, such as Swiss German (Alemannic dialects – no.  This situation has been called a medial diglossia. The largest cities in the Franconian Central German area are Cologne and Frankfurt. The plural has an inflection for the dative. 27), and West Frisian (spoken in Friesland – no. "replacement", typically used to refer to an inferior substitute for a desired substance or item, lit. In addition, most modal verbs have a change of vowel in the singular. Bavarian dialects are spoken in Austria (Vienna, Lower and Upper Austria, Styria, Carinthia, Salzburg, Burgenland, and in most parts of Tyrol), Bavaria (Upper and Lower Bavaria as well as Upper Palatinate), South Tyrol, southwesternmost Saxony (Southern Vogtlandian), and in the Swiss village of Samnaun. Official revisions of some of the rules from 1901 were not issued until the controversial German orthography reform of 1996 was made the official standard by governments of all German-speaking countries. Raesfeld [ˈraːsfɛlt], Coesfeld [ˈkoːsfɛlt] and Itzehoe [ɪtsəˈhoː], but this use of the letter e after a/o/u does not occur in the present-day spelling of words other than proper nouns.). Among the best-known poets and authors in German are Lessing, Goethe, Schiller, Kleist, Hoffmann, Brecht, Heine, and Kafka. Ver- often describes some kind of extreme or excess of the root verb, although not in any systematic way: 'sprechen', for example means to 'speak', but 'versprechen', 'to promise' as in 'to give ones word' and 'fallen', meaning 'to fall' but 'verfallen', 'to decay' or 'to be ruined'. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. German is a fusional language with a moderate degree of inflection, with three grammatical genders; as such, there can be a large number of words derived from the same root. The zu-infinitive extended with um expresses purpose (in order to, for the purpose of). The latter is used like a conditional mood in German (English: I would). This subtopic is strongly related to the construction of German sentences. The Deutsches Wörterbuch (German Dictionary) initiated by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm already contained over 330,000 headwords in its first edition. The status of Luxembourgish as a German variety or separate language is subject to discussion. Until the mid-nineteenth century, it was essentially the language of townspeople throughout most of the Empire. In 2007, some traditional spellings were finally invalidated; however, in 2008, many of the old comma rules were again put in force. independent of context, speech, and syntax) of disapproval for this type of deverbative is rather weak, though present. German readers understand these transcriptions (although they appear unusual), but they are avoided if the regular umlauts are available, because they are a makeshift and not proper spelling. The perfect infinitive is constructed by turning the old infinitive into the passive participle form and attaching the auxiliary verbs haben or sein after the verb. This convention is almost unique to German today (shared perhaps only by the closely related Luxembourgish language and several insular dialects of the North Frisian language), but it was historically common in other languages such as Danish (which abolished the capitalization of nouns in 1948) and English. In Switzerland and Liechtenstein, ss is used instead of ß. Usage of German sharply declined with the advent of World War I, due to the prevailing anti-German sentiment in the population and related government action. Note that, if the subject is singular, the predicative noun must not be plural. The printed forms, however, were claimed by some to be more readable when used for. Many word orders are still possible: The main verb may appear in first position to put stress on the action itself. This restriction does not hold for dative objects. Most times, this noun indicates slightly more disapproval than the other one (depending in the same way on context, speech etc.). German nouns inflect by case, gender, and number: This degree of inflection is considerably less than in Old High German and other old Indo-European languages such as Latin, Ancient Greek, and Sanskrit, and it is also somewhat less than, for instance, Old English, modern Icelandic, or Russian. The Upper German dialects are the Alemannic dialects in the west and the Bavarian dialects in the east. The East Franconian dialect branch is one of the most spoken dialect branches in Germany. For a sentence without an auxiliary, these are several possibilities: The position of a noun in a German sentence has no bearing on its being a subject, an object or another argument. The longest German word verified to be actually in (albeit very limited) use is Rindfleischetikettierungsüberwachungsaufgabenübertragungsgesetz, which, literally translated, is "beef labelling supervision duties assignment law" [from Rind (cattle), Fleisch (meat), Etikettierung(s) (labelling), Überwachung(s) (supervision), Aufgaben (duties), Übertragung(s) (assignment), Gesetz (law)]. German is written in the Latin alphabet. The Low Franconian dialects are the dialects that are more closely related to Dutch than to Low German. If used, it often may appear unwieldy or unnatural, except for specific usual cases. One of the central events in the development of ENHG was the publication of Luther's translation of the Bible into German (the New Testament was published in 1522; the Old Testament was published in parts and completed in 1534). As in English, there are many pairs of synonyms due to the enrichment of the Germanic vocabulary with loanwords from Latin and Latinized Greek. These dialects are considered as. Further east, the non-Franconian, East Central German dialects are spoken (Thuringian, Upper Saxon, Ore Mountainian, and Lusatian-New Markish, and earlier, in the then German-speaking parts of Silesia also Silesian, and in then German southern East Prussia also High Prussian). Like the other Germanic languages, German forms noun compounds in which the first noun modifies the category given by the second: Hundehütte ("dog hut"; specifically: "dog kennel").
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