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Also this method is very simple in understanding and in application. The LSM philosophy uses a multiple safety factor format which attempts to provide adeq… Limit State Method also identifies the ambiguity of various failure modes. Also, the structure should satisfy the serviceability requirements, like limitations of deflection and cracking. In the ultimate load method, the nonlinear stress-strain curves of steel and concrete also the stress conditions just before the collapse are considered so as to avoid the problems arisen due to the imaginary concept of modular ratio (m). In the limit state method of design, the structure should be designed to withstand safely all the loads acting on it throughout its life. Also Read: Differentiate between WSM and LSM. WSM is Stress based method of RCC design. This method was developed in the 1950s with overcoming shortcomings of WSM and introduced in the USA in 1956, the UK in 1957, and also in 1964 revision of IS 456. Limit state method of design The object of the design based on the limit state concept is to achieve an acceptable probability, that a structure will not become unsuitable in it’s lifetime for the use for which it is intended,i.e. The assumption that the stresses under working loads can be kept within permissible stresses is unrealistic or not practical. most critical limit state., and checked for other limit states. WSM was based on calculations on service load conditions only, ULM was based on calculations on ultimate load conditions only and now LSM provides comprehensive and rational solutions to the design problems by considering safety at ultimate loads and serviceability at working loads. In RCC Design by WSM Tensile Stresses considered. The Working Stress Method was in use for several years until the revision of IS 456 in 2000. = 985.5 / (pi()/4*20^2) = 3.13 = 4 (say), Bottom Reinforcement = 4 # 20 mm Dia. The ultimate load design method also termed as load factor method or the ultimate strength method. WSM also included in IS 456 : 2000 but regulated from main content of code to Annex B i.e. The philosophy of the limit state method of design represents a definite advancement over the traditional design philosophies. = 659.73 / (pi()/4*16^2) = 3.13 = 4 (say), Top Reinforcement = Provide 4#16 mm Dia. (Tie Bars) Ast =  (35/100)* (pi()/4*20^2)*4 = 659.73 mm2, Bar No. So the Design phase is one of the important phases in the execution of the project, which drives the execution of the project, and to the final project delivery. Civil PowerPoint Presentations | Civil ppts, Join CivilDigital WhatsApp Groups | Civil Engineering WhatsApp groups, Types of Dams | Classification of Reservoirs, Cathodic Protection | Types of Cathodic Protection | Applications, Ground Improvement with Sand Compaction Piles | Advantages, Basics of Flat Plate Floor System – Advantages & Disadvantages, Concrete Properties and Mix Design | Mix Proportioning, The Vasco da Gama Bridge, Lisbon (1998) – Longest Bridge in the World (08/10), 20 Applications Artificial Intelligence in Civil Engineering & Construction, Home Construction Quotes: Where to Get Them, Irrigation Engineering Quiz Part A – Interview Questions. of Beam = 0.3 * 0.55 * 25 = 4.125 KN/m, Total Load (w) = 4.125 + 12 = 16.125 KN/m, Moment (M) = w * l^2 / 8 = 16.125 *(8)^2/8 = 129 KN/m, For Balanced Section , Q = Mrb / (Sigma_cbc * b * d^2) = 0.1304, d = 686.35 > 750 mm ( i.e. In LSM , Partial Safety Factor is considered. The stress-strain behavior between steel and concrete is linear. Performance under normal service load is not considered, that is why it was realized that the design approach that combines the very best features of the working stress method and the ultimate load method will result in better structural stability and performance. Stress Strain behavior for concrete is non linear and time dependent thus modular ratio is not constant, and WSM does not considers consequences of this non-linearity of material. In WSM , the material follows Hooke’s law as stress is not allowed to cross the yield limit. In 1900 theory by Coignet and Tedesco was accepted and codified as Working Stress Method. = 439.82 / (pi()/4*12^2) = 3.13 = 4 (say), Top Reinforcement = Provide 4#12 mm Dia. No factor of safety chosen for material stresses. In the limit state method of design, the structure should be designed to withstand safely all the loads acting on it throughout its life. Whereas Ultimate Load Method was developed in the 1950s as a alternative to Working Stress Method. In RCC Design by LSM Tensile Stresses are not considered. axis of structural components remains plane after bending. Working Stress Method assumes that concrete and steel reinforcement in a structure acts together and are perfectly elastic and that’s why modular ratio can be used to determine the stresses in concrete and steel. A section which is plane  normal to the axis of structural component remains plane after bending. Bar, Ultimate Moment of Resistance (Mu lim) = 0.138*fck*b*d^2, D = 601.93 + 25 + 8 + 1/2 *20  = 644.93 mm, Eff. All the tensile stresses are taken only by the reinforcement and not by the concrete. (Tie Bars) Ast =  (35/100)* (pi()/4*20^2)*4 = 439.82 mm2, Bar No. The Ultimate Stresses are considered as allowable permissible stresses. Despite having these much amount of limitations, structures designed with this method have performed well for long period of time. Unlike WSM which based calculations on service load conditions alone, and unlike ULM, which based calculations on ultimate load conditions alone, LSM aims for a comprehensive and rational solution to the design problem, by considering safety at ultimate loads and serviceabilityat working loads. Know the Effects, Types, Representation, and Grade Compensation, [PDF] IS Codes for Civil Engineering- Download PDF. The tensile strength of concrete is ignored. As discussed above there are two different methods of RCC Design which can be distinguish as follows : Self wt. Modular Ratio (m = 280/(3*Sigma_cbc) )  is generally taken into consideration to calculate allowable stresses. Working Stress Method was the traditional method of design for RCC structures, steel structures, and timber structures also. This … A section which is plane before bending remains plane after bending. Limit State of Serviceability: Deflection.

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