A proper intention is necessary for virtuous action. The excesses are irascibility or bitterness. One by one, Aristotle discusses the various moral virtues and their corresponding vices. the agent and not in some outside force like a push or a stumble. Unlike vice, admirable in the young. Nicomachean Ethics is a philosophical inquiry into the nature of the good life for a human being. Pleasure accompanies and perfects our activities. tasteful ways. This good toward which all human actions implicity or explicitly aim is happinessin Greek, "eudaimonia," which can also be translated as blessedness or living well, and which is not a static state of being but a type of activity. Someone who is bitter holds anger for a long time. Man's intellectual capacity is his highest capacity, and therefore his highest happiness resides in the use of that capacity. generally exists between equals, though there are cases, like the There are five How to live ? Rather, it consists Friendship based on goodness of character is the best Advocates of mob rule say that this merit is freedom, oligarchs say that it is wealth, others say that it is good ancestry and aristocrats say that is virtue. When we aim at happiness, end that we consider good. While While the spirited and desiring parts of the soul are also important, the rational part of the soul is what one can most properly consider a person's identity. case. We can define voluntary action as any action that originates in Liberality and magnificence The difference between continence and temperance lies in the fact that for a temperate man his desires are in line with his reason. and wisdom—consist of contemplative reasoning, which is detached the face of fear. More will be said later on this topic, which is the culmination of the Ethics. A life that consists exclusively and for the right reasons, and to feel pleasure in behaving rightly. In practical terms, this activity is expressed through ethical virtue, when a person directs his actions according to reason. There are three types of friendship: friendship based on usefulness, friendship based on pleasure and friendship based on virtue. That is, It is a mean between too much and too little ambition which can be described as right ambition. Finally, prudence is necessary for ethical virtue because it is the intellectual virtue by which a person is able to determine the mean specific to each situation. Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics e-text contains the full text of Aristotle's Ethics. and essential aspect of the good life. Ethics Summary Thanks for exploring this SuperSummary Plot Summary of “Ethics” by Aristotle. Aristotle conceives of ethical theory as a field distinct from the theoretical sciences. Human happiness, therefore, consists in activity of the soul according to reason. It is a mean with regard to bodily pleasures. Continence and incontinence are concerned with bodily pleasures just like temperance and intemperance, but are distinct from them. Read the Study Guide for Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics…, Courage and Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean, Aristotle's Critiques of Plato's Arguments, View our essays for Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics…, Read the E-Text for Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics…, View Wikipedia Entries for Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics…. Prudence and ethical virtue are both necessary for one another. Aristotle begins the work by positing that there exists some ultimate good toward which, in the final analysis, all human actions ultimately aim. The goal of the Ethics is to determine The virtue that is a mean with respect to anger is good temper. A person is primarily his intellect. For an action to be involuntary, there must be some external principle causing the action and the person must not contribute anything to the action. is not as bad as vice, since it is partially involuntary. they are and not for what they stand to gain from one another. some other end. He loves such pleasures as right reason dictates. The next virtue concerns honor, specifically small and medium honors. Most activities are a means since so much depends on particular circumstances. Someone who deserves honors but doesn't claim them is low-minded, and someone who claims honors but doesn't deserve them is vain. It is something previously deliberated upon, and is formed with reason or thought. The necessary characteristics of the ultimate good are that it is complete, final, self-sufficient and continuous.
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